The first stage in the CCS process is the capture of CO2 from the gases emitted during the burning of fossil fuels or biomass, as well as capturing CO2 from industrial processes such as steel-making, cement, chemicals and refining.
There are several different technologies for CO2 capture at different maturity levels. In some cases, CO2 can be an integrated part of the production process.
The cost of CO2 capture varies from source to source depending on several factors. For example, the proportion of CO2 that is entrained in the exhaust gas, the availability of low-cost energy/heat, and opportunities to integrate CO2 capture in the production process. This means that some facilities are low-hanging fruit for implementing CCS.
Once captured, carbon dioxide is transported by pipeline or ship to a
suitable storage site. The technologies involved in transportation are similar
as those used extensively for transporting food grade CO2 and natural gas around the world.
Transportation of carbon dioxide has been carried out for over 40 years (particularly in the US for use in Enhanced Oil Recovery). Transportation of CO2 by ships and road is part of the daily business in the food grade CO2 market but in smaller volumes.