Chapter 7. References

7. References

  1. Meld. St. 33 (2019–2020) Report to the Storting (white paper) Longship – Carbon capture and storage, Table 6.1 Estimated expected costs and Parliament’s cost frame for Northern Lights, Norcem and Fortum Oslo Varme
  2. Prop. 1 S (2014–2015) (
  3. Meld. St. 33 (2019–2020) Report to the Storting (white paper) Longship – Carbon capture and storage
  4. Acording to the Revised National Budget 2022 an external quality assurance shows that there is a high proability of delays in Norcem’s project (start-up is expected to be delayed by four months).
  5. Meld. St. 33 (2019–2020) / Storting white paper 2019–2020: Longship – Carbon capture and storage, “Box 2.4 How does Longship contribute to innovation?”
  14. 1996 Protocol to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter 1972 Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (
  15. The Effort Sharing Regulation is not implemented in Norwegian law but incorporated into Protocol 31 on co-operation in special areas outside the four freedoms
  16. The EU ETS Directive, 2003/87/EC, EUR-Lex – 32003L0087 – EN – EUR-Lex (
  17. The Effort Sharing Regulation, (EU) 2018/842, EUR-Lex – 32018R0842 – EN – EUR-Lex (
  18. The Land Use and Forestry Regulation, (EU) 2018/841, EUR-Lex – 32018R0841 – EN – EUR-Lex (
  19. The CCS Directive, 2009/31/EC, EUR-Lex – 32009L0031 – EN – EUR-Lex (
  20. The ETS Monitoring and Reporting Regulation (MRR), (EU) 2022/388 , CL2018R2066EN0010010.0001_cp 1..1 (
  21. Forskrift om utnyttelse av undersjøiske reservoarer på kontinentalsokkelen til lagring av CO₂ og om transport av CO₂ på kontinentalsokkelen, FOR-2014-12-05-1517 (Regulations relating to exploitation of subsea reservoirs on the continental shelf for storage of CO₂ and relating to transportation of CO₂ on the continental shelf).
  22. Forskrift om begrensning av forurensning (forurensningsforskriften), FOR-2021-07-10-2383
  23. Forskrift til lov om petroleumsvirksomhet, FOR-1997-06-27-653 (Petroleum Regulation)
  24. Lov om vern mot forurensninger og om avfall (forurensningsloven), LOV-2021-05-07-34
  25. Forskrift om håndtering av brannfarlig, reaksjonsfarlig og trykksatt stoff samt utstyr og anlegg som benyttes ved håndteringen, FOR-2009-06-08-602
  26. Forskrift om sikkerhet og arbeidsmiljø ved transport og injeksjon av CO2 på kontinentalsokkelen, FOR-2020-02-25-186
  27. Lov om planlegging og byggesaksbehandling, LOV-2008-06-27-71
  28. The English translations of the laws and regulations use both permit and license for the Norwegian term “tillatelse”. We have used the term that is used in the corresponding translation.
  29. Lov om kvoteplikt og handel med kvoter for utslipp av klimagasser (Klimakvoteloven), LOV-2004-12-17-99
  30. “A story about the Johansen Formation”
  31. Only Norcem (not Celsio) is currently covered by the EU ETS
  32. The new national combustion tax was introduced January 2022 on waste combustion. As Norcem is combusting waste at their cement plant in Brevik they are currently covered by the EU ETS and the combustion tax for the fossil-based CO2 from the wasteto-energy process.
  34. Lov om offentlige anskaffelser, LOV-2016-06-17-73
  36. Directive 2012/18/EU (Seveso-III-Directive)
  37. Multiconsult, Karbonfangstanlegg Norcem Brevik – konsekvensutredning, 2019
  38. Fortum Oslo Varme, Reguleringsplan med konsekvensutredning for utvikling av energigjenvinningsanlegget på Klemetsrud – Konsekvensutredning, 2019
  39. Equinor, EL001 Northern Lights Plan for utbygging, anlegg og drift Del II – Konsekvensutredning, 2020
  40. Letter from DBS to Gassnova: “Kartlegging av ansvarlige myndigheter for CCS – grense mellom sjø og land”
  41. “CCS policies and regulatory framework for CCS” by Svein Mofossbakke, Gassnova SF; Ingvild Ombudstvedt, IOM Law and Maria Ellingsen Gran, IOM Law
  42. Lov om vitenskapelig utforskning og undersøkelse etter og utnyttelse av andre undersjøiske naturforekomster enn petroleumsforekomster og mineralforekomster, LOV-1963-06-21-12
  43. Two licenses under the carbon Storage Regulations awarded on the NCS –
  44. Høring – forslag til endring i selskapsloven – transport og lagring av CO2 i undersjøiske reservoarer på kontinentalsokkelen –
  45. Lov om ansvarlige selskaper og kommandittselskaper (Selskapsloven)
  46. Unless the Ministry or the entity it authorises, upon application from the operator, is convinced that the requirement of “that the stored CO₂ will remain entirely and permanently enclosed” has been met before the expiry of the said, minimum 20 year period.
  47. Letter from the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy to Equinor ASA, 7 April 2020: “Prinsipper for regulering av transport og lagring av CO2 på norsk kontinentalsokkel”
  49. Letter “The Norwegian CCS demonstration project – request for legal clarifications related to the ETS Directive and the MRregulation” from the Norwegian Ministry of Climate and Environment to the EU Commission dated 1 July 2019
  50. Letter “Subject: Legal issues regarding Carbon Capture and Storage” from the EU Commission to the Norwegian Ministry of Climate and Environment dated 27 July 2020
  52. Northern-Lights-FEED-report-public-version.pdf (
  53. Northern Lights – Storage Complex Monitoring Plan, 40 pp., 2020